Technical Quarterly Volume 48 * Issue 3 : Page 12
86 MBAA TQ vol. 48, no. 3 • 2011 Optimisation of Commercial Mashing Enzymes that commercial enzyme supplements for mashing malted Sa-frari are not indispensable for obtaining maximal yields of extract as compared to unmalted Safrari . The enzymes supple-ments however proved useful for obtaining maximal FAN. Conclusions The effects of three commercial mashing enzymes (Hitem-pase 2XL, Bioglucanase TX and Brewers protease) on yields of extract and FAN were studied during the mashing of un-malted and malted Safrari grist. Hitempase 2XL was princi-pally responsible for extract yields in unmalted Safrari mash but had no impact on the malted Safrari mash type. Biogluca-nase TX barely played a supporting role in these yields, while Brewers protease showed no significant role. Hitempase 2XL and Brewers protease individually contributed to yields in FAN in both unmalted and malted Safrari mashes, though the milling operation contributed to FAN yields for more than 50% in both mashes. This study shows that proper malting and mashing of this sorghum cultivar could lead to satisfactory wort properties in terms of extract and FAN for brewing pur-poses. Supplements of commercial mashing enzymes to boost their yields of extract in particular are thus not indispensable when mashing with malted Safrari. Optimisation of mashing properties through models clearly describing the actions of individual commercial mashing enzymes, as displayed in this study using the response surface methodology, is however of interest, particularly when mashing with high amounts of sor-ghum adjuncts. Further studies on the fermentability of worts obtained after such studies would be of importance in order to assess the exploitability of the results for improved brewing practices with this sorghum cultivar. REFERENCES 1. Adejemilua, F. (1995). Processing and profile of sorghum malt. Tech. Q. Master Brew. Assoc. Am. 32:15-18. 2. Agu, R. C. and Palmer, G. H. (1998a). Enzymic modification of en-dosperm of barley and sorghum of similar total nitrogen. Brewers’ Dig. August:30-35. 3. Agu, R. C. and Palmer, G. H. (1998b). Effect of mashing with com-mercial enzymes on the properties of sorghum worts. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 14:43-48. 4. Agu, R. C., Ugwu, A. H., Okenchi, M. U., Aneke, I. B. and Anyanwu, T. U. (1995). Effect of low kilning temperatures on diastase and cellu-lase development of Nigerian malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ). Process Biochem. 31:63-68. 5. Aisien, A. O. (1982). Enzymic modification of sorghum endosperm during seedling growth and malting. J. Sci. Food Agric., 33:754-759. 6. Aisien, A. O. and Muts, G. C. J. (1987). Micro-scale malting and brewing studies of some sorghum varieties. J. Inst. Brew. 93:328-333. 7. Aniche, G. N. and Palmer, G. H. (1990). Development of amylolytic activities in sorghum and barley malt. J. Inst. Brew. 96:377-379. 8. Arri, B. K. (1989). Problems associated with the use of sorghum for lager beer production. Industrial utilization of sorghum: Symposium on the Current Status and Potential of Industrial Uses of Sorghum. ICRISAT: Kano, Nigeria. 9. Bajomo, M. F. and Young, T. W. (1992). Development of a mashing profile for the use of microbial enzymes in brewing with raw sorghum (80%) and malted barley or sorghum malt (20%). J. Inst. Brew. 98:515-523. 10. Bajomo, M. F. and Young, T. W. (1993). The properties, composition and fermentabilities of worts made from 100% raw sorghum and com-mercial enzymes. J. Inst. Brew. 99:153-158. 11. Bajomo, M. F. and Young, T. W. (1994). Fermentation of worts made from 100% raw sorghum and enzymes. J. Inst. Brew. 100:79-84. 12. Baranyi, J., Pin, C. and Ross, T. (1999). Validating and comparing predictive models. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 48:159-166. 13. Bas, D. and Boyac, I. H. (2007). Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology. J. Food Eng. 78:836-845. 14. Dale, C. J., Young, T. W. and Omole, T. (1990). Small scale mashing experiments with grist containing high proportions of raw sorghum. J. Inst. Brew. 96:403-409. 15. Desobgo, Z. S. C., Nso, E. J., Tenin, D. and Kayem, G. J. (2010). Modelling and optimizing of mashing enzymes-effect on yield of filtrate of unmalted sorghum by use of response surface methodology. J. Inst. Brew. 116:62-69. 16. Dufour, J. P. and Melotte, L. (1992). Sorghum malts for the produc-tion of a lager beer. J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 50:110-119. 17. EtokApan, O. U. and Palmer, G. H. (1990). Comparative studies of the development of endosperm-degrading enzymes in malting sor-ghum and barley. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 6:408-417. 18. European Brewery Convention. Analytica-EBC, Fachverlag Hans Carl: Nürnberg, 1998. 19. Evans, D J. and Taylor, J. R. N. (1990a). Extraction and assay of pro-teolytic activities in sorghum malt. J. Inst. Brew. 96:201-207. 20. Evans, D. J. and Taylor, J. R. N. (1990b). Influence of cultivar and germination conditions on proteolytic activities in sorghum malt. J. Inst. Brew. 96:399-402. 21. Goode, L. D. and Arendt, E. K. (2003). Pilot scale production of lager beer from grist containing 50% unmalted sorghum. J. Inst. Brew. 109:208-217. 22. Goode, L. D., Halbert, C. and Arendt, E. K. (2002). Mashing studies with unmalted sorghum and malted barley. J. Inst. Brew. 108:465-473. 23. Goode, L. D., Halbert, C. and Arendt, E. K. (2003). Optimisation of mashing conditions when mashing with unmalted sorghum and com-mercial enzymes. J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 61:69-78. 24. Hallgren, L. (1995). Lager beers from sorghum. In: Sorghum and millets. Chemistry and Technology DAV Dendy, pp. 283-297. Ameri-can Association of Cereal Chemists: Minneapolis. 25. Jayatissa, P. M., Pathirana, R. A. and Sivayogasundaram, K. (1980). Malting quality of Sri Lankan varieties of sorghum. J. Inst. Brew. 86:18-20. 26. Little, B. T. (1994). Alternative cereals for beer production. Ferment 7:163-168. 27. MacFadden, D. P. and Clayton, M. (1989). Brewing with sorghum-use of exogenous enzymes. Brew. Bev. Ind. Int. 1:71-81. 28. Nso, E. J., Ajebesone, P. E., Mbofung, C. M. and Palmer, G. H. (2003). Properties of three sorghum cultivars used for the production of Bili-Bili beverage in Northern Cameroon. J. Inst. Brew. 109:245-250. 29. Nso, E. J., Nanadoum, M. and Palmer, G. H. (2006). The effect of formaldehyde on enzyme development in sorghum malts. Tech. Q. Master Brew. Assoc. Am. 43:177-182. 30. Obilana, A. T. (1990). Sorghum seed production and grain utilisation in the brewing industries: the Nigerian experience. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Seed Production and Utilisation, Lusaka, Zambia. 31. Ogbonna, A. C. (1992). Developments in the malting and brewing trials with sorghum. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 8:87-91. 32. Okafor, N. (1985). Prospects and challenges of the use of local cereals and starchy substrates in brewing. In: National Symposium on the Brewing Industry, Now and the 21st Century, pp. 22-25. Owerri, Nigeria. 33. Owuama, C. I. (1999). Brewing beer with sorghum. J. Inst. Brew. 105:23-34. 34. Owuama, C. I. and Okafor, N. (1990). Use of unmalted sorghum as a brewing adjunct. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 6:318-322. 35. Phiarais, N. B., Schehl, B. D., Oliveira, J. C. and Arendt, E. K. (2006). Use of surface response methodology to investigate the effectiveness of commercial enzymes on buckwheat malt for brewing purpose. J. Inst. Brew. 112:324-332. 36. Ross, T. (1996). Indices for performance evaluation of predictive models in food microbiology. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 81:501-508. 37. Taylor, J. R. N. (1983). Effect of malting on the protein and free amino nitrogen composition of sorghum. J. Sci. Food Agric. 34:885-892. 38. Taylor, J. R. N. (1991). Proteolysis in sorghum maltings. In: Proceed-ings of the Third Scientific and Technical Convention, Institute of Brewing, Central and South African Section, Johannesburg, pp. 18-24.
Using a screen reader? Click Here